Steroids overview

Before starting with anabolic steroids, it's advicable to understand how human body and its hormonal system works. We will talk about testosterone, the primary male sex hormone. Further, we will explain estrogen aromatization and DHT conversion. Once the anatomy part is explained, we will move on to anabolic steroids, their history, development, applications and side effects.

Acute Steroid Safety: Studies with Real-World Dosages

Few medicines have the type of stigma about them that anabolic/androgenic steroids do. If you mention the decision to use these drugs to the average person, you are likely to be lectured about the tremendous physical and psychological risks you are about to undertake; how your hair might fall out,...

Brief History of Anabolic / Androgenic Steroids

While it had been clear for many centuries that the testicles were crucial for the male body to properly develop, it was not until modern times that an understanding of testosterone began to form. The first solid scientific experiments in this area, which eventually led to the discovery and...

Clinical Applications

Anabolic/androgenic steroids are approved for sale by prescription in virtually every pharmaceutical market around the world. Having been applied for many decades to treat a variety of diseased states, today these drugs have a number of well-established medical uses. They have been used to treat...

DHT Conversion

As we see from our discussion with estrogen, in considering the physiological effects of any steroid, we must look at all of its active metabolites, and not just the initial compound. This includes not only estrogenic products, but androgenic metabolites as well. With this in mind, it is important...

Direct and Indirect Anabolic Effects

Although testosterone has been isolated, synthesized, and actively experimented with for many decades now, there is still some debate today as to exactly how steroids affect muscle mass. At this point in time, the primary mode of anabolic action with all anabolic/androgenic steroids is understood to...

Estrogen Aromatization

Testosterone is the primary substrate used in the male body for the synthesis of estrogen (estradiol), the principal female sex hormone. Although the presence of estrogen may seem quite unusual in men, it is structurally very similar to testosterone. With a slight alteration by the enzyme aromatase,...

Free vs. Bound Testosterone

A very small amount of testosterone actually exists in a free state, where interaction with cellular receptors is possible. The majority will be bound to the proteins SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin, also referred to as sex steroid binding globulin and testosterone-estradiol binding globulin) and...

Introduction to Testosterone

Anabolic steroids are a class of medications that contain a synthetically manufactured form of the hormone testosterone, or a related compound that is derived from (or similar in structure and action to) this hormone. In order to fully grasp how anabolic steroids work, it is, therefore, important to...

Steroid Nomenclature

Perhaps not obvious at first glance, there is a naming convention in place that was used to create identities for the various anabolic/androgenic steroid hormones. This typically involves create identities for the various anabolic/androgenic steroid hormones. This typically involves forming a root...

Synthetic AAS Chemistry

All anabolic/androgenic steroids are preparations containing one of the above three natural steroid hormones, or chemically altered derivatives thereof. In creating new synthetic compounds, one of the three natural hormones is selected as a starting point, typically due to the possession of...

Synthetic AAS Development

In order to develop products that would be effective therapeutically, chemists needed to solve a number of problems with using natural steroid hormones for treatment. For example, oral dosing was a problem, as our basic steroids testosterone, nandrolone, anddihydrotestosterone are ineffective when...

The Endocrinology of Muscle Growth

The road to anabolic insight must include a biological understanding of what muscle growth actually entails. Often simplified by the term “protein synthesis”, muscle growth is actually a highly complex process involving much more than just building proteins from amino acids. Muscle hypertrophy,...