Testosterone propionate is a commonly manufactured injectable form of the primary male androgen testosterone. The added propionate ester will slow the rate in which testosterone is released from the injection site, but only for a few days. Testosterone propionate is, therefore, comparatively much faster-acting than other testosterone esters such as cypionate or enanthate, and requires a much more frequent dosing schedule. By most accounts testosterone propionate is an older and cruder form of injectable testosterone, made obsolete by the slower-acting and more comfortable esters that were developed subsequent to it. Still, those who are not bothered by the frequent injection schedule find testosterone propionate every bit as acceptable. As an injectable testosterone, it is a powerful massbuilding drug, capable of producing rapid gains in both muscle size and strength.
|Brand name||Oreton, Testosterone propionate, Testoviron, Testolic, Propiobolic, Misr, Testosterona P, Jelfa, Testogan, Virormone|
Testosterone Propionate History
Testosterone propionate was first described in 1935, during a series of experiments that set out to increase the therapeutic usefulness of testosterone by slowing its release into the bloodstream. Two years later, Schering AG in Germany would introduce the first testosterone propionate product under the brand name Testoviron. Propionate was also the first commercially available injectable ester of testosterone on the U.S. prescription drug market, and remained the dominant form of testosterone globally before 1960. Back during the early 1950’s, for example, when steroids were first being experimented with by small numbers of American athletes, the only readily available anabolic/androgenic steroids were methyltestosterone should provide substantial results with no significant hepatotoxicity. Testosterone is ultimately very versatile, and can be combined with many other anabolic/androgenic steroids to tailor the desired effect.
Early prescribing guidelines for testosterone propionate called for a number of therapeutic uses. It was mainly applied to cases of male androgen insufficiency, and those issues normally surrounding low testosterone levels such as reduced sex drive and impotence in adults, and cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) in teenagers and young adults. But it also had such other uses as treating menopause, menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding), menstrual tension, chronic cystic mastitis (fibrocystic breasts), endometriosis, and excessive lactation, covering a wide range of situations in which the male hormone testosterone was being applied to female patients. Over the years these wide guidelines were narrowed by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration, however, and by the 1980’s, testosterone propionate was being largely applied only to male patients.
Testosterone propionate has a long history of availability in the U.S. and abroad, and remains a very common form of testosterone on the global market to this day. It must be emphasized, however, that its ability to remain on the market is more a product of history than unique application. Testosterone propionate was the first acceptable ester of testosterone, and consequently has many decades of history as a useable therapeutic agent. Many companies have sold it for decades now, and so long as it is still in demand will continue to do so. But other (more modern) forms of testosterone such as enanthate and cypionate are much more popular today, as they are much slower-acting still, and allow for far more comfortable administration schedules. Testosterone propionate is still approved for sale in the United States, although its ultimate market future here remains questionable.
Bodybuilders commonly consider propionate to be the mildest testosterone ester, and the preferred form of this hormone for dieting/cutting phases of training. Some will go so far as to say that propionate will harden the physique, while giving the user less water and fat retention than one typically expects to see with a testosterone like enanthate, cypionate or Sustanon. Realistically, however, these advantages do not hold up to close scrutiny. The propionate ester is actually removed before the testosterone it carries is active in the body, and ultimately has little effect outside of slowing steroid release. It all really boils down to how much testosterone you are getting into your blood with each particular esterified compound. Otherwise, there are no real functional differences between them.
How is Testosterone Propionate Supplied
Testosterone propionate is widely available in human and veterinary drug markets. Composition and dosage may vary by country and manufacturer, but usually contain 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, or 100 mg/ml of steroid dissolved in oil.
Structural Characteristics of Testosterone Propionate
Testosterone propionate is a modified form of testosterone, where a carboxylic acid ester (propionic acid) has been attached to the 17-beta hydroxyl group. Esterified forms of testosterone are less polar than free testosterone, and are absorbed more slowly from the area of injection. Once in the bloodstream, the ester is removed to yield free (active) testosterone. Esterified forms of testosterone are designed to prolong the window of therapeutic effect following administration, allowing for a less frequent injection schedule compared to injections of free (unesterified) steroid. The half-life of testosterone propionate is approximately two days after injection.
Testosterone Propionate Side Effects (Estrogenic)
Testosterone is readily aromatized in the body to estradiol (estrogen). The aromatase (estrogen synthetase) enzyme is responsible for this metabolism of testosterone. Elevated estrogen levels can cause side effects such as increased water retention, body fat gain, and gynecomastia. Testosterone is considered a moderately estrogenic steroid. An anti-estrogen such as clomiphene citrate or tamoxifen citrate may be necessary to prevent estrogenic side effects. One may alternately use an aromatase inhibitor like Arimidex (anastrozole), which more efficiently controls estrogen by preventing its synthesis. Aromatase inhibitors can be quite expensive in comparison to anti-estrogens, however, and may also have negative effects on blood lipids.
Estrogenic side effects will occur in a dose-dependant manner, with higher doses (above normal therapeutic levels) of testosterone propionate more likely to require the concurrent use of an anti-estrogen or aromatase inhibitor. Since water retention and loss of muscle definition are common with higher doses of testosterone, this drug is usually considered a poor choice for dieting or cutting phases of training. Its moderate estrogenicity makes it more ideal for bulking phases, where the added water retention will support raw strength and muscle size, and help foster a stronger anabolic environment.
Testosterone Propionate Side Effects (Androgenic)
Testosterone is the primary male androgen, responsible for maintaining secondary male sexual characteristics. Elevated levels of testosterone are likely to produce androgenic side effects including oily skin, acne, and body/facial hair growth. Men with a genetic predisposition for hair loss (androgenetic alopecia) may notice accelerated male pattern balding. Those concerned about hair loss may find a more comfortable option in nandrolone decanoate, which is a comparably less androgenic steroid. Women are warned of the potential virilizing effects of anabolic/androgenic steroids, especially with a strong androgen such as testosterone. These may include deepening of the voice, menstrual irregularities, changes in skin texture, facial hair growth, and clitoral enlargement.
In androgen-responsive target tissues such as the skin, scalp, and prostate, the high relative androgenicity of testosterone is dependant on its reduction to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The 5-alpha reductase enzyme is responsible for this metabolism of testosterone. The concurrent use of a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor such as finasteride or dutasteride will interfere with site-specific potentiation of testosterone action, lowering the tendency of testosterone drugs to produce androgenic side effects. It is important to remember that both anabolic and androgenic effects are mediated via the cytosolic androgen receptor. Complete separation of testosterone’s anabolic and androgenic properties is not possible, even with total 5-alpha reductase inhibition.
Testosterone Propionate Side Effects (Hepatotoxicity)
Testosterone does not have hepatotoxic effects; liver toxicity is unlikely. One study examined Testosterone does not have hepatotoxic effects; liver toxicity is unlikely. One study examined the potential for hepatotoxicity with high doses of testosterone by administering 400 mg of the hormone per day (2,800 mg per week) to a group of male subjects. The steroid was taken orally so that higher peak concentrations would be reached in hepatic tissues compared to intramuscular injections. The hormone was given daily for 20 days, and produced no significant changes in liver enzyme values including serum albumin, bilirubin, alanine-amino-transferase, and alkaline phosphatases.
Testosterone Propionate Side Effects (Cardiovascular)
Anabolic/androgenic steroids can have deleterious effects on serum cholesterol. This includes a tendency to reduce HDL (good) cholesterol values and increase LDL (bad) cholesterol values, which may shift the HDL to LDL balance in a direction that favors greater risk of arteriosclerosis. The relative impact of an anabolic/androgenic steroid on serum lipids is dependant on the dose, route of administration (oral vs. injectable), type of steroid (aromatizable or non-aromatizable), and level of resistance to hepatic metabolism. Anabolic/androgenic steroids may also adversely affect blood pressure and triglycerides, reduce endothelial relaxation, and support left ventricular hypertrophy, all potentially increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction.
Testosterone tends to have a much less dramatic impact on cardiovascular risk factors than synthetic steroids. This is due in part to its openness to metabolism by the liver, which allows it to have less effect on the hepatic management of cholesterol. The aromatization of testosterone to estradiol also helps to mitigate the negative effects of androgens on serum lipids. In one study, 280 mg per week of testosterone ester (enanthate) had a slight but not statistically significant effect on HDL cholesterol after 12 weeks, but when taken with an aromatase inhibitor a strong (25%) decrease was seen. Studies using 300 mg of testosterone ester (enanthate) per week for twenty weeks without an aromatase inhibitor demonstrated only a 13% decrease in HDL cholesterol, while at 600 mg the reduction reached 21%. The negative impact of aromatase inhibition should be taken into consideration before such drug is added to testosterone therapy.
Due to the positive influence of estrogen on serum lipids, tamoxifen citrate or clomiphene citrate are preferred to aromatase inhibitors for those concerned with cardiovascular health, as they offer a partial estrogenic effect in the liver. This allows them to potentially improve lipid profiles and offset some of the negative effects of androgens. With doses of 600 mg or less of testosterone per week, the impact on lipid profile tends to be noticeable but not dramatic, making an anti-estrogen (for cardioprotective purposes) perhaps unnecessary. Doses of 600 mg or less per week have also failed to produce statistically significant changes in LDL/VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B/C-III, C-reactive protein, and insulin sensitivity, all indicating a relatively weak impact on cardiovascular risk factors. When used in moderate doses, injectable testosterone esters are usually considered to be the safest of all anabolic/androgenic steroids.
To help reduce cardiovascular strain it is advised to maintain an active cardiovascular exercise program and minimize the intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, and simple carbohydrates at all times during active AAS administration. Supplementing with fish oils (4 grams per day) and a natural cholesterol/antioxidant formula such as Lipid Stabil or a product with comparable ingredients is also recommended.
Testosterone Propionate Side Effects (Testosterone Suppression)
All anabolic/androgenic steroids when taken in doses sufficient to promote muscle gain are expected to suppress endogenous testosterone production. Testosterone is the primary male androgen, and offers strong negative feedback on endogenous testosterone production. Testosterone-based drugs will, likewise, have a strong effect on the hypothalamic regulation of natural steroid hormones. Without the intervention of testosterone-stimulating substances, testosterone levels should return to normal within 1-4 months of drug secession. Note that prolonged hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism can develop secondary to steroid abuse, necessitating medical intervention.
Testosterone Propionate Administration (General)
Testosterone propionate is often regarded as a painful injection. This is due to the very short carbon chain of the propionic acid ester, which can be irritating to tissues at the site of injection. Many sensitive individuals choose to stay away from this steroid completely, their bodies reacting with a pronounced soreness and low-grade fever that may last for a few days after each injection. Even the mild soreness that is experienced by most users can be quite uncomfortable, especially when you take into account that the drug is being administered multiple times each week for a number of consecutive weeks.
Testosterone Propionate Administration (Men)
To treat androgen insufficiency, early prescribing guidelines recommended a dosage of 25 mg given two to three times per week. Modern product literature usually recommends 25 mg to 50 mg given two to three times per week for the same purpose. The usual dosage among male athletes is in the range of 50-100 mg per injection, which is given every second or third day. Similar to other esters of testosterone, testosterone propionate is commonly used at a weekly cumulative dosage between 200 mg to 400 mg. This level is sufficient for most users to notice exceptional gains in muscle size and strength.
Testosterone propionate is usually incorporated into bulking phases of training, when added water retention will be of little consequence, the user more concerned with raw mass than definition. Some do incorporate this drug into cutting cycles as well, but typically in lower doses (100-200 mg per week) and/or when accompanied by an aromatase inhibitor to keep estrogen levels under control. Testosterone propionate is a very effective anabolic drug, and is often used alone with great benefit. Some, however, find a need to stack it with other anabolic/androgenic steroids for a stronger effect, in which case an additional 200-400 mg per week of boldenone undecylenate, methenolone enanthate, or nandrolone decanoate should provide substantial results with no significant hepatotoxicity. Testosterone is ultimately very versatile, and can be combined with many other anabolic/androgenic steroids to tailor the desired effect
Testosterone Propionate Administration (Women)
Testosterone propionate is rarely used with women in clinical medicine. When applied, it is most often used as a secondary medication during inoperable breast cancer, when other therapies have failed to produce a desirable effect and suppression of ovarian function is necessary. Testosterone propionate is not recommended for women for performanceenhancing purposes due to its strong androgenic nature and tendency to produce virilizing side effects. Female bodybuilders who insist on using testosterone, however, often choose propionate, as blood levels are easier to control with this ester compared to cypionate or enanthate. Should virilization symptoms develop, hormone levels will decline in a matter of days, instead of weeks, following drug cessation. The administration schedule is often more conservative as well, with a small injection (25 mg at most) given every 5 to 7 days, and cycle duration limited to 6-8 weeks or less.
Testosterone Propionate Availability
Testosterone propionate is subject to decreasing supply as a pharmaceutical product. Longer acting esters such as cypionate and enanthate are much better suited for virtually every clinical application. As such, most physicians and pharmaceutical companies have abandoned this old ester of testosterone. With a few exceptions in the west, the remaining legitimate supply largely comes from manufacturers in loosely regulated markets of Asia, where black market demand continues to drive production. In reviewing some of the remaining products and changes in the global pharmaceutical market, we have made the following observations.
Tesotsterone propionate is unavailable in the United States as a prescription product. Watson, Lilly, Bel Mar, and Rigby made some of the last known products, but all have been removed from market for some time. Given that the FDA never officially withdrew the drug, it can still be specially ordered through a small number of compounding pharmacies.
Brovel in Mexico makes a testosterone propionate in a 50 mg/mL dosage for veterinary use. Counterfeits are not commonly a problem.
Testolic is made in Thailand by T.P. Drug Laboratories. This product comes in the form of 2 mL ampules, each holding 50 mg/mL of steroid. mL ampules, each holding 50 mg/mL of steroid.
Propiobolic from Asia Pharma (Malaysia) is now approved for sale through pharmacies in Thailand. Each box should carry a scratch-off security sticker, which will display a code that can be validated on the company website.
Misr (Egypt) have updated the packaging to Testone-E. The new box carries a white / green / blue pattern similar to other Egyptian steroids including Cidoviron and Cidoteston.
Balkan Pharmaceuticals (Moldova) makes the product Testosterona P. It is prepared in both 1 mL ampules and multi-dose vials.
Testosteron is a popular brand from Bulgaria, and is commonly exported to other markets in high volume. It comes in the form of 1 mL glass ampules containing 50 mg/mL of steroid.
A generic made by the company Farmak is popularly exported from the Ukraine. This also comes in the form of 1 mL glass ampules containing 50 mg of steroid.
Jelfa makes Testosteronum Propionicum in Poland, which makes its way most often to the European black market. However, it only contains 25 mg of steroid in each 1 mL ampule.
Virormone is still manufactured in the UK, most recently by the firm Nordic.This product contains 2 mL per ampule, with 100 mg of steroid held in each.
Testogan is made by Laquinsa in Costa Rica. This product contains only 25 mg/mL of steroid, but is distributed in a 50 mL multi-dose vial. This makes it one of the largest volume testosterone propionate products available in commerce.
Testosterone Propionate is produced by Swiss Remedies and available across Europe. Due to numerous fakes of this product, Swiss Remedies offers a convenient online product checker.
Magnus Pharmaceuticals makes the product Test P primarily for the EU and UK markets. Due to fake products appearing on the market, Magnus offers an online checker that lets steroid users verify their product originality.
Due to Testosterone Propionate possessing a brief active-life of 2-3 days, many athletes involved in tested competitions liked the stuff...a lot. Testing is usually based upon testosterone /Epitestosterone levels. Though most individuals have a much lower ratio, athletes can have natural ratios of up to 6:1. This is considered a negative test for steroids… usually. By injecting Propionate up to 36 hours before competition, plasma Testosterone levels remained elevated while urine concentrations usually fell within the 6:1 levels. Of course IOC testing protocols would detect any plant origin AAS today. But several groups still simply test for the ratio only.
Testosterone Propionate is considered a fast acting testosterone due to effects beginning in about 1 day. The drug reportedly has all the benefits of other testosterones (quick strength and muscle mass increases, increased training aggressiveness, fast posttraining recovery) but caused a distinctly lower level of water retention. Users noted an improved muscle pump and increased appetite after one to two days of administration. Even with a high rate of aromatization, propionate did not cause gyno as often as other testosterone esters. Users who realize this normally did so due to less frequent injections: Not due to some special quality of the drug. I liked propionate because an increase in IGF-1 was common during liver deactivation. Also because use could be discontinued at the first sign of overt side effects (thus allowing the chemical to no longer be the cause after 2-3 days post-discontinuance).
A high quality muscle gain has been achieved with 50-100mg Testosterone propionate every 1-2 days, 50mg Winstrol Depot every 2nd day, and 20-25mg of Oxandrolone daily. If Parabolan (76mg every other day) was substituted for Winstrol and Proviron is utilized as an anti-estrogen, this became an excellent pre-contest cycle providing superior hardness. Those who had used Primobolan only and no longer made progress at 200-400 mg weekly made consider progress by stacking 200-400mg Primobolan Depot weekly with 50-100mg of Testosterone Propionate every second day. Improved vascularity was common due to increased in red blood cell count as well.
Women who did use testosterones considered propionate to be the superior choice over any other. 25-50mg of Propionate every 5-7 days stacked with any high anabolic such as Anadur, or especially Durabolin caused a dramatic result with less virilizing characteristics. As always, women who are extremely sensitive to androgens reported the use of 1mg Finasteride daily lowered DHT conversion of Propionate.
*It should be noted: Propionate also severely suppresses HPTA function and HCG/Clomid have been considered post administration stables.
Anabolic Steroid Guide reference
Testosterone propionate, after Testosterone cypionate and enanthate, is the third injectable testosterone ester that needs to be described in detail. This makes sense because, unlike cypionate and enanthate, both of which are widely used and well-spread in Europe, proprionate is little noticed by most athletes. The reader will now certainly pose the question of why the characteristics of an apparently rarely used substance are described in detail. At a first glance this might seem a little unusual but when looking at this substance more closely, there are several reasons that become clear. Testosterone propionate is used on so few occasions in weightlifting, powerlifting, and bodybuilding not because it is ineffective. On the contrary, most do not know about propionate and its application potential. One acts according to the mottos "what you don't know won't hurt you" and "If others don't use, it can't be any good." We do not want to go this far and call propionate the most effective testosterone ester-, however, in certain applications it is superior to enanthate, cypionate, and also undecanoate because it has characteristics which the common test-osterones do not have.
The main difference between propionate, cypionate, and enanthate is the respective duration of effect. In contrast to the long-acting enanthate and cypionate depot steroids, propionate has a distinctly lower duration of effect. The reader learns how long this time is from the package insert of the German Jenapharm GmbH for their compound "Testosteron Jenapharm" (see list with trade 'names): "Testosterone proprionate has a duration of effect of I to 2 days." An eye-catching difference, however, is that the athlete "draws" distinctly less water with propionate and visibly lower water retention occurs. Since propionate is quickly effective, often after only one or two days, the athlete experiences an increase of his training energy, a better pump, an increased appe-tite, and a slight strength gain. As an initial dose most athletes pre-fer a 50-100 mg injection. This offers two options: First, because of the rapid initial effect of the propionate-ester one can initiate a sev-eral-weeklong steroid treatment with Testosterone enanthate. Those who cannot wait until the depot steroids become effective inject 250 mg of Testosterone enanthate and 50 mg of Testosterone propionate at the beginning of the treatment. After two days, when the effect of the propionates decreases, another 50 mg ampule is injected. Two days after that, the elevated testosterone level caused by the propi-onate begins to decrease. By that time, the effect of the enanthates in the body would be present; no further propionate injections would be necessary. Thus the athlete rapidly reaches and maintains a high testosterone level for a long time due to the depot testo. This, for example, is important for athletes who with Anadrol 50 over the six-week treatment have gained several pounds and would now like to switch to testosterone. Since Anadrol 50 begins its "breakdown" shortly after use of the compound is discontinued, a fast and el-evated testosterone level is desirable.
The second option is to take propionate during the entire period of intake. This, however, requires a periodic injection every second day. Best results can be obtained with 50-100 mg per day or every sec-ond day. The athlete, as already mentioned, will experience visibly lower water retention than with the depot testosterones so that propionate is well-liked by bodybuilders who easily draw water with enanthate. A good stack for gaining muscle mass would be, for example, 100 mg Testosterone propionate every 2 days, 5p mg Winstrol Depot every 2 days, and 30 mg Dianabol/day. Propionate is mainly used in the preparation for a competition and used by female athletes. And in this phase, dieting is often combined with, testosterone to maintain muscle mass and muscle density at their maximum. Propionate has always proven effective in this regard since it fulfills these requirements while lowering possible water retention. This water retention can be tempered by using Nolvadex and Proviron. A combination of 100 mg Testosterone propionate every 2 days, either 50 mg Winstrol Depot/day or 76 mg Parabolan every 2 days, and 25 mg Oxandrolone/day help achieve this goal and are suitable for building up "quality muscles."
Women especially like propionate since, when applied properly, an-drogenic-caused side effects can be avoided more easily The trick is to increase the time intervals between the various injections so that the testosterone level can fall again and so there is an accumulation of androgens in the female organism. Women therefore take propi-onate only every 5-7 days and obtain remarkable results with it. The, androgenic effect included in the propionate allows better regeneration without virilization symptoms for hard-training women. The dosage is usually 25-50 mg/injection. Higher dosages and more frequent intervals of intake would certainly show even better re-sults but are not recommended for women. The duration of intake should not exceed 8-10 weeks and can be supplemented by taking mild and mostly anabolic steroids such as, for example, Primobolan, Durabolin, and Anadur in order to promote the synthesis of pro-tein. Men who do not fear the intake of testosterone or the possible side effects should go ahead and give propionate a try. The side ef-fects of propionate are usually less frequent and are less pronounced. The reason is that the weekly dose of propionate is usually much lower than with depot testosterones. A daily injection of 50 mg amounts to a weekly dose of 350 mg while several depot injections easily launch the milligram content of testosterone into the fourfigure range. When compared with enanthate and cypionate, propionate is also a "milder" substance and thus better tolerated in the body. Those who are convinced that they need daily testosterone injections should consider taking propionate. The key to success with propionate lies in the regular intake of relatively small quantities (50-100 mg every 1-2 days.)
Although the side effects of propionate are similar to the ones of enanthate and cypionate these, as already mentioned, occur less frequently. However, if there is a predisposition and very high dosages are taken, the known androgenic-linked side effects such as acne vulgaris, accelerated hair loss, and increased growth of body hair and deep voice can occur. An increased libido is common both in men and women with the use of propionate. Despite the high conversion rate of propionate into estrogen gynecomastia is less common than with other testosterones. The same is true for possible water retention since the retention of electrolytes and water is less pronounced. The administration of testosterone-stimulating compounds such as HCG and Clomid can, however, also be advised with propionate use since it has a strong influence on the hypothalamohypophysial testicular axis, suppressing the endogenous hormone production. The toxic influence on the liver is minimal so that a liver damage is unlikely (see also Testosterone enanthate). What athletes dislike most about propionate are the frequent injections that are necessary.
As for frequent injections: The Testosterone Berco Suppositories by the German company Funke can help. This is quite an unusual testosterone compound since these are suppositories. The suppositories contain 40 mg Testosterone propionate and are introduced into the body through the rectum. This form of intake also has an additional advantage. The substance Testosterone propionate is reabsorbed very rapidly through the intestine. For a package with 18 suppositories the price on the black market is about $35.
Newbies Research Guide reference
10 mg/tab 60 or 250/bottle. This drug is a potent nonsteroidal anti-estrogen. It is indicated for use in estrogen dependent tumors, i.e. breast cancer. Steroid users take Nolvadex to prevent the effects of estrogen in the body. This estrogen is most often the result of aromatizing steroids. Nolvadex can aid in preventing edema, gynecomastia, and female pattern fat distribution, all of which might occur when a man’s estrogen levels are too high. Also, these effects can occur when androgen levels are too low, making estrogen the predominant hormone. This can occur when endogenous androgens have been suppressed by the prolonged use of exogenous steroids. Nolvadex works by competitively binding to target estrogen sites like those at the breast. This drug is not toxic nor have any side effects been seen in athletes who used the drug’ as an anti-estrogen. This drug is the most popular anti-estrogen amongst steroid users. Although it does not turn out to be 100% effective for everyone, it does seem to exhibit some level of effectiveness for the majority. It works so well for some bodybuilders they can take drugs like Anadrol right up to a contest as long as they stack it with Nolvadex. It would seem wise to take this drug in conjunction with any steroid cycle. Most reported a dosage of 10 mg to 20 mg daily got the job done. Availability of Nolvadex has been fair on the black market.
Wlliam Llewellyn (2011) - Anabolics
L. Rea (2002) - Chemical Muscle Enhancement Bodybuilders Desk Reference
Anabolic Steroid Guide
Newbies Research Guide